James Francis Thorpe (1888-1953) translated in Sac and Fox as “Bright Path.” was a dedicated and a highly trained athlete. Looking like a physical specimen resulted from a dedication to hard work and training. His body rippled at 185 lbs., a 42″ chest, a 32″ waist, and 24″ thighs at 6″ tall. “Nobody was in his class,” marveled historian Bill Mallon; orthopedic surgeon, professional golfer, and a leading historian on the Olympic Games. His physique was partly the product of hard labor in the wilderness of the Oklahoma Territory as a youngster and member of the Sac and Fox Nation. By age 6, Thorpe could shoot, ride, trap, and hike 30 miles with his father stalking game. Jim was an expert wrangler of wild horses, a student of their motion, and a thoroughbred of a runner. He emulated their effective action and movement, as a result, learned how “to run like a breeze,” wrote sportswriter, Grantland Rice. https://www.jimthorpefilm.com/photo/pages/37.ht
The Redman in a White Man’s World
Throughout his teenage years, Jim decided to attend Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Here he met Glenn “Pop” Warner, the legendary football and track and field coach who discovered Jim Thorpe. Carlisle served as a model for two dozen other off-reservation boarding schools purposely built to break down the typical patterns of community and eradicate Native American culture.. Despite difficulties with cultural differences, Jim set his sights on Olympiad X in Stockholm, Sweden in 1912.
What characteristics fueled the fire under Thorpe’s motivation and ambition? His days at Carlisle are described by a teacher:
“Jim maintained an open face, an honest wide look, eyes wide apart, a picture of frankness, but not brilliance. He would trust anybody. His appearance on the gridiron was described as the epitome of concentration, wary, with an effect of plenty of reserves.” voiced Carlisle’s piano teacher, Verna Whistler.
Unforgettable Olympiad X
In Spring of 1912, Thorpe started training for the Olympiad X in Stockholm, Sweden. Thorpe was chosen to represent the U.S. in the pentathlon and decathlon events. The pentathlon and decathlon teams included future International Olympic Committee president, Avery Brundage. At the time, Jim did not know that Brundage would become an antagonistic character in a tragic story fueling Jim’s rise and fall from grace.
. Yet, a triumphant Jim Thorpe won 2 gold medals by winning eight of the 15 individual events comprising the pentathlon and decathlon. For the record, winning both medals at the Olympic Games has never been repeated. Notably, Thorpe achieved an unequivocal honor that stood the test of time.
To add to his amazing accomplishment, he had to overcome the theft of his track shoes. He found a mismatched pair of replacements, including one from the trash bin, and won gold medals wearing them. Stealing Jim’s track shoes might have stemmed from dislike from his competitors like Avery Brundage. Regardless of this, Jim prevailed against the odds.
Thorpe vs. Brundage
The foreshadowing of the earlier events led up to an unfamiliar political competition between the honesty of a farm boy from Oklahoma and a bunch of sophisticated stuffed shirts from the big city. The contest was rigged against him. Jim was unprepared for the unscrupulous skullduggery to come. Here’s the story.
In 1912, all athletes followed rules regarding amateurism to participate in the Olympics. Athletes who received money prizes for competitions were ineligible. Thorpe played professional baseball in the Eastern Carolina League for Rocky Mount, North Carolina.in the summer of 1909 and 1910. College players commonly spent summers playing professional baseball and used an alias. Thorpe explained in a letter:
“I hope by the fact that as a simple Indian schoolboy who did not know all about such things. I did not know I was doing anything wrong. I was doing what I knew several other college players had done, except that they did not use their names.”
The American Athletic Union ignored the fact that it was commonplace that many college players played anonymously in professional baseball under assumed names. By contrast, the committee decided to discriminate and single out Thorpe by stripping him of his medals.awards, and titles. Consequently, Jim Thorpe was devastated. Despite all of this tragedy, he found the inner strength to push himself to excel in multiple sports and overcome the injustice from his past.
As a result, Jim played six seasons of Major League Baseball, yet football remained his favorite. The Canton Bulldogs, a powerhouse football franchise, dominated professional football in its earliest days. Jim Thorpe was at the core of the team’s championship success.
In 1920, Thorpe served as star and coach, the Bulldogs claimed unofficial world championships in 1916, 1917, 1919, and 1920. As a player, Thorpe could run with speed, bruising power, throw a forward pass, and catch passes with the best. To the wonder of onlookers, Thorpe punted the ball long distances, and he dropkicked or placed kicked the football distances up to 50 yards.
An Athlete for All Seasons
Heretofore, players like Bo Jackson and Deion Sanders, Jim Thorpe was America’s original crossover athlete. He was a two-time college football All-American (1911-1912) at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School under Pop Warner. As a professional, he excelled on the gridiron in the N.F.L (1920-25, 1926, 1928). He played halfback and linebacker, playing both ways. Rounding out his professional career; he played Major League Baseball for six seasons, as an outfielder (1913-1919), and traveled the country with a professional basketball team (1927). Would history restore the legacy of Jim Thorpe?
Racism and Prejudice Dispelled
Careful discovery and research for this project found a revealing caveat of fact: The stripping of Thorpe’s medals demonstrated hypocrisy and discrimination based on race. The committee violated its own standing policy and procedures by filing a late grievance. According to the I.O.C. rules, protests filed after 30 days were void. They filed the objection 6 months beyond the stipulated time frame stated in their bylaws. Over the years, supporters of Thorpe attempted to have his Olympic medals returned. Avery Brundage, president of the International Olympic Committee, and others rejected many attempts, using the phrase, “ignorance is no excuse.” Brundage who died at 87 in 1975,” had the reputation of being a humorless, pompous, and an egotistical prig. Furthermore, “this man behaved like a fascist and anti-semite; he acted as a hypocrite with selective ethics”, wrote Clifford Terry of the Chicago Tribune.
Jim’s Final Victory
Finally, in 1982, the previous policies and practices were exposed to show their discriminatory nature by newly elected members. As a result, the International Olympic Committee restored the medals and awards to the Thorpe family. Consequently, the honor and spirit of Bright Path rose from obscurity to revel in the heavens. Gradually, the honors continued to build for Jim Thorpe. In summary, Jim Thorpe tried to change racial attitudes around race by running in one-1912 Olympiad X. Unfortunately, such attitudinal changes remain decades in the making.
The Greatest Athlete of the 20th Century
At the closing ceremonies of the 1912 Olympiad in Stockholm, Sweden, King Gustav V addressed medalist Thorpe. He said, “Sir you are the greatest athlete in the world.” Thorpe replied, “Thanks, King.” His other career highlights and awards include:
First -team All-Pro N.F.L. (1923), N.F.L. 1920’s All-Decade Team, College All-American (1911-1912), Pro Football Hall of Fame Inductee (1963), College Football Hall of Fame election (1951).
In closing, in 1999 in a joint resolution, the U.S. Congress recognized the World’s Greatest Athlete of the 20th Century. It was not Babe Ruth or Lou Gehrig, Jessie Owens, or Muhammad Ali. Congress recognized a man whose legend was as “silent as the wind”. The name of the “World’s Greatest Athlete of the Century whispered in the ears of the Native American Indians from Oklahoma– “Jim Thorpe–the Legend.”
What are the arguments against a trade war with China? There are debatable points to consider. First, free-trade advocates think tariffs protect domestic businesses from Chinese competition. Second, tariffs only serve to increase prices. Third, some feel that paying less for products is prosperity, and finally, the United States Chamber of Commerce has stated that tariffs are “taxes paid by Americans.” These arguments are factual. The challenge: to persuade the reader to see a different context for a trade war Begin with a basic definition to set up the context– Geopolitics addresses the relations and interactions between States, Civilizations, Peoples, and Economics.
Sun Tzu, the Art of War: “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.”
What are the arguments to continue the trade war with China?
American’s position in the world as a geopolitical power must be protected and defended. If you accept that statement with a degree of value or importance then, consider some supporting thoughts:: A red alert or state of emergency exists– all democratic governments face propaganda and deceptive practices that spread racial division and cultivate hatred. Besides, the Chinese and Russian governments hack into free elections, while foreign conspiracy theorists circulate inflammatory language through social media to cause distrust. China must be neutralized. Can tariffs neutralize China and return America to superpower status in the world?
Tariffs can help to discourage American businesses from aiding in the rise of this formidable adversary– that seeks to lead the world in areas of AI, telecom, and other advanced technology. Therefore; a primary policy that prohibits U.S. companies from entering the Chinese market to “share” intellectual property would render China’s global strategy a blow.
China seeks global dominance. A lesson in history shows how during W.W.II Japan sought to garner much needed natural resources through military expansion in southeast Asia. By comparison, China’s colonialism resembles Japan’s quest, i.e., the conflict with the people of Hong Kong Once Hong Kong falls to authoritarian rule, beware–Southeast Asia sits as a set of dominoes.
The dominoes to fall in China’s vision: the City of Hong Kong, The Republic of Taiwan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Japan.
How have our trade agreements with China threatened our National Defense?
Our National Defense has suffered as a result of the trade agreements with China. These agreements have handicapped our defense in ways most Americans are unaware:
1) currently our military supply chain remains located within the borders of China, 2) our military uses China’s natural resources to maintain its readiness, and 3) our advanced technology flows from American companies to the Chinese military.
How can America regain its lost dominance? Briefly, 1) redefine the meaning of “free trade” to bar a surveillance state from gaining an upper hand in the market place, 2) prevent and discourage U.S. corporations from locating their Research and Development operations in China. For Example, 50% of all centers are from the United States. As a result, spies infiltrate and steal technology from these corporate R&D centers. Consequently, tariffs will help our country to decouple from China and encourage the development of supply chains and natural resources outside of China.
Hence, the inconvenient truth–China wins the trade war because America’s National Defense remains in jeopardy. Furthermore, our country silently withdraws from its geopolitical responsibility to help preserve and protect democratic governments.
Above all, the trade war with China means so much more than buying cheaper consumer goods–America must decouple from China to regain its presence as a world power and regain control over its National Defense.
Joseph Jefferson Jackson, “Shoeless Joe Jackson,” 1888-1951, was a major league baseball player for three teams; the Philadelphia Athletics, 1908-1909, the Cleveland Naps (named after Napoleon Lajoie, 1910-1915, and the Chicago White Sox, 1910-1920. Joe Jackson’s last time at bat was the evening of December 5, 1951, when he died at home at the age of sixty-three of a heart attack.
Joe Jackson House and Museum, across from Fluor Field, Greenville, South Carolina
He was proclaimed “shoeless” in 1908, at the age of twenty years, while playing semi-pro ball with the Greenville Spinners. Jackson played with a pair of new baseball spikes that quickly wore blisters on his feet. He removed his shoes and walked into the batter’s box without many fans noticing. Out of the stands came a shouting voice, “You shoeless son-of-a-gun!” It was the one and only time he played shoeless, but the name stuck and became synonymous with him.
League Park, Cleveland, Ohio, has been restored and remains today as a legacy to Baseball’s greatest players. As a youth, I played sandlot baseball as a shortstop at League Park, it was my field of dreams. Joe Jackson played from 1910-1915.
Connie Mack signed him with the Athletics in 1908, and then traded him to the Cleveland Naps in 1910 where he batted .408. In August of 1915, he was traded to the Chicago White Sox for $31,500 cash and three players. With Chicago he went on to help them win the World Series in 1917 and the American League pennant in 1919.
Joe Jackson museum and house makes tribute to the one of the greatest hitters ever to play the game, Greenville, S.C.
After the loss in the 1919 World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, Joe Jackson and seven other White Sox players where accused of conspiring to throw the 1919 World Series. The headline read: “WHITE SOX INDICTED!” The news stunned baseball fans and threatened the integrity and popularity of baseball as American’s pastime. A trial was held in 1921, a Chicago jury rendered a verdict of not guilty on all counts. Despite the acquittal, newly appointed baseball commissioner, Kennesaw Mountain Landis, banned Jackson and seven of his teammates from professional baseball for life. Gambling was outlawed by the players from that day forward a la the Pete Rose scandal.
Joe Jackson played for the Cleveland Naps from 1910-1915 where he batted .408 as a rookie; led the league in triples in 1912, led the league in hits and slugging percentage (.551), before being traded to the Chicago White Sox in August of 1915.
Did Joe Jackson help fix the 1919 World Series? This has remained a point of dispute for nearly a century. Let’s examine the evidence. Joe played flawlessly, hitting .375 for the Series, the highest batting average for either team. He had twelve hits (a World Series record at the time), six R.B.I.’s, and no fielding errors. Finally, he hit the only homer run in the Series! So why was he banned for life based on such a performance that defies any attempts on his part to fix the Series? Judge Landis explained that he was guilty of knowing about the conspiracy and then remaining silent about it. His indifference and poor judgment was punished severely by Landis. Did the punishment fit the crime?
Joe Jackson in his front yard being interviewed by Furman Bisher, October, 1949, for an issue of Sport Magazine.In 1949, Joe told “The Sporting News,” during an interview, “Regardless of what anybody says, I was innocent of any wrongdoing. I gave baseball all I had. My Supreme Being is the only one to whom I’ve got to answer. If I had been out there booting balls and looking foolish at bat against the Reds, there might have been some ground for suspicion. I think my record in the 1919 World Series will stand up against that of any other man in that Series or any other World Series in all of history.”
Joe and Kate Jackson attending a Boston Braves game.
Joe and his wife Kate moved back to Greenville, S.C. in 1922 and opened various businesses; dry cleaning, a barbeque restaurant, and later a liquor store. He continued to play semi-pro baseball throughout the South and North. In 1941, at the age of 53, Joe played in his first and only night game, putting on a hitting exhibition by belting two homeruns that evening.
Joe Jackson and Furman Bisher, October, 1949, an interview for an article which appeared in Sport Magazine.
Joe Jackson told Furman Bisher in October, 1949, of Sport Magazine: “I can say that my conscience is clear and that I’ll stand on my record in the World Series… I ‘m not what you call a good Christian, but I believe in the Good Book, where it says, “what you sow, so you shall reap.” I have asked the Lord for guidance, and I am sure that He gave it to me. I will let the Lord be my judge.”
The “Shoeless” Joe Jackson Museum and House is dedicated to presenting and preserving the legacy of Jackson’s life and professonal career. It is located at 356 Field Street, Greenville, S.C., across from Fluor Field. (Red Sox farm team).
Baseball statistics for Joe Jackson:
Position Left Field, Threw Right and Batted Left-Handed
1911 .408 batting average (Ty Cobb won the batting title hitting a robust .420)
1912 Led the American League in triples
1913 Led the American League in hits and slugging percentage at .551
1917 Led Chicago White Sox to a World Series title over the New York Giants
1919 .356 World Series batting average and an American League Pennant
When someone thinks about the most memorable photograph in the history of the United States Marine Corp, you might be picturing the world famous flag raising that declared victory on the Island of Iwo Jima in February of 1945 in the South Pacific during World War II. The daunting scene of the stars and stripes flying atop Mount Suribachi was filled with the unfamiliar faces of young marines raising the flag with outstretched arms. Every one of those Marines that landed on that black, sandy beach had preconceived fears and ideas for the unknown events that were to come. Set your previously conceived mental images aside of Iwo Jima, and be prepared to make the landing with the Marines.
Your prior notions about the invasion of Iwo Jima will the first thing to go, just as those pre-conceived notions of the young Marines were changed by the reality of war. Iwo Jima was a place where no matter which way a soldier turned, there was yet another new and profound thing to have experienced. As a soldier experienced scenes of life and death, he became empowered to live in the moment. By living in the here and now, many acts of bravery and valor were inspired. The many acts of heroism were individually inspired and motivated by unwavering deeds of passion and selflessness.
From Iwo Jima to Hiroshima: The Atomic Bomb
Enola Gay at Iwo Jima enroute to Hiroshima.
What very few Americans knew at the time was that seizure of Iwo Jima was an integral part of preparations for the atomic bombing of Japan. As early as October of 1944; four months before its invasion, Iwo Jima had been designated as an emergency landing point for B-29’s carrying atomic bombs. In fact, the Enola Gay refueled and landed on Iwo Jima as a part of its charted flight path to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan on August 5, 1945. Iwo Jima was an emergency landing field, if the aircraft carrying the bomb need to abandon its mission. If the aircraft carrying the bomb malfunctioned, it would have landed at Iwo Jima to transfer the bomb to a spare plane, which would have continued the mission. The island had no real strategic value in terms of a future amphibious invasion of Japan, but was a vital element in dropping the atomic bomb.and serving as a P-51 fighter base.
Honoring the Flag Raisers: U.S. Marine Corps (3rd, 4th, and 5th Divisions)
Two world-famous and time honored quotations have come down to us from the Battle of Iwo Jima. The first was delivered by the then-Secretary of the Navy, James Forrestal, who witnessed the raising of the U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi. Turning to Marine Lieutenant-General Holland Smith, he observed: “Holland, the raising of that flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years.” The second quote was by Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, who said after the battle: “Among the Americans serving on Iwo Jima, uncommon valor was a common virtue.” Many time honored facts have supported these quotations, many of which are uncommon to most Americans.
Uncommon facts regarding the invasion of Iwo Jima, February of 1945 in the South Pacific Sea:
General Holland M. Smith, called the “father” of modern U.S. amphibious warfare, used naval sea power and Marine Corps ground troops to defeat the Japanese.
Two days out of Honolulu the identity of the “Island X” was revealed as the point of invasion.
The Marines had the task of liberating an ugly little hunk of slag in the ocean, nearly barren of trees or grasses or flowers. It was a dry wasteland (void of potable water) of black volcanic ash that stunk of sulphur (“Iwo Jima” means “sulfur island”).
The Army Air Force bombed the island in advance of the Marines invasion using. B-29 Super Fortresses and B-24 Liberators, which pummeled the island unmercilessly for seventy-two consecutive days, setting a record for most consecutive bombing days of a target in the Pacific War.. Reconnaissance photographs showed every square inch of the island was bombed. Admiral Nimitz mistakenly though that the bombing had pulverized and weakened the enemy defenses.
Although, reliable photographic evidence painted a grim picture for the invading forces: Initially, there were 450 major enemy installations when the bombing began, survelliance showed that at the conclusion of the bombing a total of 750 major installations. Althought military leadership was in disbelief, they did not alter invasion plans.
The air raids were called “softening up” activities, but in fact, Iwo Jima was becoming hardened.
There would be no “surprise attack” at Iwo Jima. Japanese General Kuribayashi was well prepared to fight to the death.
General Kuribayashi had transformed Iwo Jima into the most ingenious fortress in the history of warfare. He created one huge blockhouse with 1500 underground rooms connected by sixteen miles of tunnels. Running over the heads of 22,000 well-fed troops with five months of rations.
“The Courageous Battle Vow” was posted on the walls of the bunkers, caves, and blockhouses on the island. It read:
“We are here to defend this island to the limit of our strength. We must devote ourselves to that task entirely. Each of your shots must kill many Americans….. No man must die until he has killed at least ten Americans…. Long live the Emperor!”
General Kuribayashi wrote to his wife in a letter a private thought that he never shared with his men: “The United States is the last country in the world Japan should fight.”
120,000 Japanese and Americans on and off shore, consumed life and limb during thirty-six days of combat by killing or maimimg more than half of the land combatants. The Battle of Iwo Jima turned into a primitive contest of gladiators; Japanese gladiators fighting from caves and tunnels like the catacombs of the Roman Colosseum, and the American gladiators aboveground, exposed on all sides, using liquid gasoline to burn their opponents out of their lethal hiding places.
General Holland Smith, “Father of Amphibious Warfare.”
The importance of the capture of Mount Suribachi was described by General Holland Smith, “the success of our entire assault depended upon the early capture of that grim, smoking rock.”
One early mistake in the real time of the invasion was to assume that a source of the enemy fire, once extinguished, was permanently dead. It wasn’t. George Bernstein, my step father, shared how the Marines had to regain territory because the Japanese would flank the troops using hidden tunnels.
The U.S. military’s highest distinction, the Medal of Honor was awarded to 27 soldiers on Iwo Jima, 14 posthumously. By comparison only 82 received the award for their service in the Pacific in total.
The casualties were many; 6.821 U.S. marines were killed and 19,217 wounded in the battle. Over 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, a few thousand went into hiding while only 216 prisoners were taken. Just 2 Japanese soldiers remained in hiding on the island until they finally surrendered in 1951.
Iwo Jima’s highest point was the site of Joe Rosenthal’s iconic photograph, it measures 528 feet above sea level.
Aerial view of Mount Suribachi on the Island of Iwo Jima.
The uninhabitanted volcanic island measures roughly 8 square miles, and it is located 660 miles south of Tokyo, and equidistant from Guam.
The Proud, The Few:
To honor the fallen soldiers and courageous survivors of the Battle of Iwo Jima, a few authentic photographs are shared to remind us of the human cost for our freedom and liberty. This slogan reflects the unique character of the Marine Corps and underscores the high caliber of those who join and serve their country as Marines, ” Major General Richard T. Tyron, commanding general.
This is the story of the Collinwood School Fire of 1908, it was and still remains as the worst school fire in American history. Read to uncover the causes and effects of the fire, witness the community and nation united in a singular cause to end such tragedies, and become apart of today’s history as our nation must address the unsolved issues around gun control and school safety.
It was Ash Wednesday on March 4, 1908, the rain had fallen for several days, and the temperature was brisk at 36 degrees with blue skies and blustery winds blowing in from Lake Erie. Lakeview School in the Village of Collinwood, was located east of Cleveland, Ohio. It was the site of a perilous school fire that changed the way that school buildings were to be constructed, and the way that future fire safety rules were to be written. It is a human story that told of the heroic teachers and of panic- stricken children who perished that day. It was a catastrophic and infamous tragedy that was recorded in the annals of American history as the most devastating school fire of all time. Because, in spite of all the heroic efforts, 172 children and 3 adults were burned alive in this holocaust. The tragic news of the school fire made headlines around the nation and the world. The news reports offered more questions than answers for the families and friends of the lost children. What was the cause of the fire? Why was there such a large number of casualties? How could such an event be prevented in the future? By all accounts it was a day that started out like any other, but would live in the hearts and minds of many people, as a day that lived in infamy.
Miss Lynn’s first grade class.
Sounds of School Bells:
In the news that day were reports of President Theodore Roosevelt‘s seventh year in the White House; Pat Garret who killed “Billy the Kid” was murdered a week earlier in New Mexico, sixteen year old Mary Pickford was making her first silent moving picture; and Edison’s talking machine, including records, cost ten dollars.
Children were scurrying through the muddy sidewalks, covered in puddles from yesterday’s rain, trying to avoid being tardy to school. Many stopped by the small store on the coroner opposite the school for candy, reaching into their pockets for pennies in exchange for Clark Teaberry Gum, King Leo peppermint sticks, NEECO wafers, Brach’s wrapped caramels, pink conversation hearts, and Hershey’s chocolates.
Collamer Street is known as East 152nd Street today.
Words of “Amen”:
The mothers hovered in the doorways of their Collinwood homes to see their children off to Lakeview School. They bade farewell with kisses and heartfelt waves goodbye as the children passed–playfully skipping, running and laughing. Most of the children lived within walking distance of the school. The school bell rang at 8:45 a.m. to signal the start of the school day. The repetition of the word–“Amen” echoed through the halls as the children of each classroom finished their opening morning prayers.
A few minutes after the morning school bell rang, little Alice Eichelberger hurried to school, she had lost her sense of the time and was about to be late for school. It was already a few minutes past 9:00 a.m. She reached the school and stared at it for a moment, she feared of being shamed for being tardy. In a moments notice, Alice turned around and ran all the way back home where she remained that day.
While playing with friends in the middle of February, eight year old Harry Parr broke his arm. After the family doctor set the arm, the doctor told the boy’s parents to keep Harry home for three weeks to allow proper healing. Harry, the only boy in the Parr family, pleaded with his mother not to go to school that sunny Wednesday morning. His mother insisted, so he left for classes for the first time in three weeks. Alice and Harry made very different choices that day, yet neither could have known that each choice was a matter of life or death.
Lakeview School Fire of Collinwood Village 1908
The School Built for Disaster:
Approximately at 9:40 a.m., when the janitor, Mr. Hirter was sweeping the basement, he was warned by Emma Neibert, who was thirteen years old, that she saw smoke. Mr. Hirter immediately sounded the fire alarm, as the alarm echoed throughout the hallways and classrooms, he quickly ran to the front and back exits and opened all sets of doors.
On all three floors, the children immediately rose from their seats and formed a double filed line and proceed to exit the building. There was no confusion as order was kept , and as the children responded to the fire alarm as they had practiced so many times in the past. To the children and teachers, it seemed like a normal fire drill, until the flames and smoke began to climb from the basement up the wooden stair case to the front exit door. Georgia yellow pine wood was used in the construction of all the stairways, as a result, the flames devoured the front exit stairs within minutes. The raging fire and smoke threw the orderly fire drill into a panic -stricken nightmare.
Any escape down the front stairs was nearly impossible. In a last second decision, a teacher, Miss Irwin, ordered her students to rush through the front doors which were tangled in flames. Those who obeyed her command escaped to safety. Her judgment saved almost half of her 38 students. She led the remaining children back into one of the smoke filled first floor rooms, where she opened a window, and lowered them to safety. In a leap of desperation, Miss Irwin jumped from the window to save her own life.
The crowd at the rear door of the school.
Confusion to Chaos:
Since the front exit was blocked and inaccessible to escape, all of the remaining children turned and ran to the back exit. More chaos was created, as all of the school children who were unable to exit through the front door, would clamor in fear to join those trying to escape through the rear exit. The scene was a tangled mass of humanity, as rear exiting classrooms of children were being piled-up in the narrow doorway. There was an avalanche of bodies, screaming, and crying for help. Many were trampled and trapped as the flames were soon going to be upon them, the fallen children mounted on top of one another in a piled mass. The first children who fell were crushed to death and died from suffocation. The others were trapped and still alive, but were packed tightly together in one enormous heap of bodies in the scant passageway trying to escape in vain. The back exit was now a deathtrap. Teachers tried to keep the children from panicking and from piling up on top of one another, but their efforts were fruitless.
Grace Fiske, first grade teacher, escaped but died later from injuries.
Katherine Weiler, second grade teacher, perished attempting to rescue a child.
Miss Gollmer was able to lead a few of her pupils back into the school and up the stairs to the second floor fire escape where they she and the Principal Miss Moran helped them to make their escape. The two teachers followed them to safety. Only the few that followed the orders of their quick thinking teachers were saved. The only school fire escape stopped six to seven feet from the ground, a distance too great for many children.
Fritz Hirter, janitor, was ridiculed and blamed by many for neglect. The antiquated firefighting equipment was too late to help. Emma Niebert alerted Mr. Hirter of the fire.
Hirter, the Janitor, Recollected:
At the back door exit—where the flames had not yet reached – there was one great heap of humanity—nine bodies high and almost reaching the ceiling—teachers were trying in vain to untangle them before the flames would overcome them. Joining in the effort were neighbors who lived next to the burning school who saw the first sight of smoke and began trying to help from the outside. Mr. Hirter, school janitor, was one of those trying to pull the little bodies to safety. He recollected, “…some of the children seemed to be half-suffocated, and some were unconscious. I did not stop to look. I seized them by the arms or legs and tossed them out behind… the flames were rushing upon us and I knew we had only a few moments left. Many of the children were still piled up in the exit when the heat and smoke drove us back from them.”
The Maddening Crowd:
Finally, the Collinwood Fire Department located within a mile of the school arrived. At the time, it was estimated that the response time was about twenty minutes. There was little they could do with the antiquated horse driven fire wagon and its pumper that had weak hose pressure to douse the flames. In addition, the flames and heat were so fierce that the firemen were unable to enter or even get near the building. As the firemen watched, the school house was now entirely engulfed by raging flames. The crowd of people, mothers, and fathers were gathered around the burning school and were hysterical. They were struggling with the local police who were trying to keep control crowd and prevent many from dashing into the burning building. The crowd became maddening wild with hysteria, as they witnessed helpless children screaming for help– being unable to do a thing for them. For those parents, those crying wails from the children rose above the sound of the burning timber and the crackling flames. The crowd reacted to its eyewitness account of this tragedy by dramatically showing outward feelings of fear and crazed maddness. The crowd’s severe reaction demonstrated its need to express its inner unvoiced and unexpressed pain..
The Children’s Hour:
The time now was 10:30 a.m. The flames had reached the third floor. The first and second floors were completely devoured and were in the process of collapsing into the basement. The cries and screams of the trapped children could no longer be heard. All were lost. Then suddenly, without warning, an elderly gray-haired man dropped to his knees in tears over losing his grandchildren in the burning school. “Oh God, what have we done to deserve this?” the man cried, as he stretched out his arms to heaven. Then the man began to pray. Many other people standing near the praying man fell to the ground on their knees and began to pray along-side the gray-haired man. Others were in so much shock that they could do nothing, they were speechless, and some only mumbling sounds as they called out to their lost loved ones. In that moment, most everyone prayed to almighty God to bless those lost in the fire.
Make shift morgue, the dead children covered in white sheets to be identified by parents.
The Dark Aftermath:
By 11:00 a.m. with all hope gone, the ghastly chore of removing and identifying the charred bodies that were lying under the ashes and debris was the job of a few hundred men. A temporary morgue was established, the digging would take hours and the number of children thought to be dead was unknown. A continuous flow of bodies on stretchers wrapped with white sheets were carried from the fire to the morgue for identification. Articles that were found in the pockets of the girl’s dresses and skirts were handkerchiefs, loose coins, and small pieces jewelry such as a penny rings, and bracelets. In the pockets of the boys were found an intact a slingshot, pocket knives, and coins. Many of parents had to identify the remains using these articles since the charred body remains defied description. As a consequence, not all parents were successful at identifying their lost children.
Throughout the world, the tragedy of the fire was read in many newspapers. The newspapers of Cleveland set up a relief fund for the families of the victims. The village of Collinwood had purchased cemetery lots at Lakeview Cemetery in Cleveland, where the unidentified children were to be buried. Plans had been made to erect a monument over the mass burial. The other children were buried at various cemeteries at the choice of their families.
In the days and weeks following the funerals, the Cleveland newspapers published the pictures of the children who perished in the fire. Even to those who were not parents,they experienced and shared in their sorrow. The published pictures of the fire victims and the burnt out ruin of the school were seen in Cleveland, Chicago, New York, London, and Paris. In places everywhere, fire inspectors rushed to examine their local schools and compared the Collinwood built Lakeview School with their own schools to find reasons for concern.
The Opposing View by the Establishment:
For some authorities the fault was with the victims, the schools were built properly and change was not necessary.
“The authorities in Collinwood thought they had built well, said an editorial in The Normal Instructor, a monthly publication for school teachers. In fact, the Collinwood School resembled “hundreds of other school buildings of the day of which those communities might well be proud.” Many questions were to be asked, “Why did the school structure collapsed on students and burned so rapidly? Unfortunately so many students were jammed against elegantly arched doorways; as the bricks, the beams, the glass, the gables, the hope and the promises rushed downward in a fiery finish of a school day that started with the ordinary ringing of a bell.
It took three years (1911) to complete the inquiry and rebuild a new school with fire prevention as its priority. Social and political change were the necessary forces behind the innovations of fire safety design that was needed to protect future school children from a similar fate. In hindsight, some blamed the children and the janitor for the tragedy, although the majority of the public realized that the system of school construction and fire safety would have to be changed to prevent a future catastrophe.
Headlines: Janitor or Boilers at fault?
Power to the People:
The events of this day changed public opinion across the nation, and influenced lawmakers to enactment new laws, i.e., such laws that improved school fire safety while restricting the use of flammable materials in the construction of public schools. The cause of the fire was not determined, although a faulty coal- fed boiler was suspected. Furthermore, the causes behind the rapid acceleration of the fire was two pronged; first the yellow pined floors and hallways varnished with a flammable chemical, and secondly, the many broken windows permitted gusts of wind from Lake Erie to stoke the raging flames with an unlimited supply of oxygen.
Memorial School garden and pond of the site on the original foundation. See rectangular shape of former school basement.
Three years later, a safer building was erected on an adjacent lot, after the deadly fire in 1911, and was appropriately named Memorial School with an adjacent garden on the original school site created in memoriam. More recently, the 1911 building has been replaced with a newer building in 2006 of the same name.
In reflection, the issues around school safety have changed over time. Over a century ago, Parents’ were concerned with school fire safety. Today, parents and society have a recurring and ever present danger-the horrific killings of school children with weapons of mass destruction. In retrospect, can a lesson be learned from the story of the Collinwood School Fire? Because, the people solved what appeared to be an insurmountable national problem; with an undying spirit. They demanded that their children would not die in vain. Consequentialy, the representatives of govenment relented and –enacted public polcy for safer schools.
In summary, solving a problem requires defining the problem correctly. Then, using a genuine, collaborative effort to marshall the necessary resources to its end. The silent majority in this country holds the key to voicing the need for gun control; improved mental health programs, a ” red flag” authority to remove weapons from dangerous individuals by law enforcement using judicial due process, and vetted background checks by government agencies that are linked in a single data base at the Federal Bureau of Investigantion
Ulysses S. Grant was celebrated as America’s greatest Civll War hero. Read the story of how a nation paid tribute to his life as a general and president of our country.
You will read of his human qualities that made him famous and infamous at the same time. Vintage photographs and digital reproductions will add to the storytelling in honor of his legacy. You will view his monument and meet his family of which he deeply cared and loved.
The family of Grant had many location choices to rest his final remains, but in the end, it was narrowed down to New York City. Ulysses S. Grant’s temporary resting place was designed and constructed within ten days of his death, July 23, 1885. A seven mile funeral procession made tribute to Ulysses S. Grant through New York to Riverside Park and his original tomb. This tomb kept his remains until a suitable monument was built in his honor.
1885, Grant’s Tomb was temporary for 12 years until 1897.
The funeral was attended by numerous dignitaries; presidents (Hayes and Arthur), the entire Congress, and nearly every living figure who had played a prominent role during the Civil War. Civil War veterans from both North and South took part; General Winfield S. Hancock and pallbearers; General William T. Sherman, General Phillip H. Sheridan, and Admiral David D. Porter, as well as former Confederates; Generals Joseph E. Johnston, and Simon B. Buckner. Grant’s remains were placed in a temporary vault in Riverside Park.
Grant’s Tomb –interior and exterior views
On April 27, 1897, the 75th Anniversary of Grant’s birth, Grant’s Tomb and final resting place was dedicated, by President William McKinley and Horace Porter; he served as lieutenant colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War, as personal secretary to General and President Grant. Both men addressed the enormous crowd.
In December of 1902, Julia Dent Grant died and was interred beside her husband in a twin sarcophagus.
The 18th President of the United States was an iconic figure of his time, and in tribute to his greatness, the people of America donated money to build Grant’s Tomb, as the largest mausoleum in North America. It reflected the honor and respect that Americans felt for their beloved General and U. S. President.
His pain and suffering ended with his death, very few understood the degree of discomfort and agony that was caused by his simply drinking a glass of milk. The cancerous tumor in his mouth was very sensitive to eating or drinking. The doctors prescribed a painkiller for his throat that provided only temporary relief from the pain. He battled the illness with the will of a warrior; knowing the financial importance of a finished volume of his written memoirs would be to his family.
He fought his battle against a disease much like he did as a soldier, aggressively, determined, and straightforward. He never surrendered to his illness until he finished his writing. At that point, he surrendered “unconditionally” to his fate. The conditions in which he resisted his illness can be viewed in the context of today’s science. He was afflicted by a one two punch of addictive diseases, briefly discussed below.
During his days, little was known about the chemical dependency and adverse effects that stemmed from alcohol and nicotine addiction. People blamed one’s addiction on religious and moral reasons. Medical science and popular opinion were void of any scientific explanation for addiction. It was believed that punishment would relieve one of the demons causing such harmful effects. In the absence of formal punishment, society used guilt and shame in an attempt to rid one oh his or her addiction.
Grant was famous and infamous at the same time; because of his conflicting character traits and alcoholic disease. On one hand, Grant was famous for his victories; Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, The Wilderness Campaign, Spotsylvania, and the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, Va. Now on the other hand, throughout the war his drinking was infamous, President Lincoln was a defender against Grant’s critics. There were complaints; that he was a butcher, incompetent, and a drunk. Grant’s drinking was common knowledge amongst his officers. Fortunately his excessive drinking did not impede most of his military decisions.
Lincoln’s response to Grant’s critics after the victory at Vicksburg. ” I will send a barrrel of whiskey to every General in the Army.”
He was especially criticized, at the victory of Vicksburg, when he ordered the release of captured Confederates to return home in exchange for a promise– that they would never again fight for the Confederacy.
Despite the scandals that arose during his presidency, Grant was never personally involved with any of them. He was infamously resented by Southerners for his role in “Reconstruction” and the passage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution. Grant had a disdain for politics, and he had an unwillingness to play the political game in Washington, D.C. He was an enigma of his own doing; as he was viewed by the press and others as a chameleon.
In closing, Grant remained a modest man and soldier. He was calm, loyal, and intelligent. He understood how to discipline and command his troops. His ability to lead was learned from General Zachery Taylor, his commanding officer, during the Mexican War. His calmness was acquired from training horses, he was the “horse whisper.”
Today, he is most remembered for being the commander of the victorious Union Army. He left us with a strong legacy of an aggressive and a determined leader. As the history of his role in the war is revisited, it is hoped that his memory will be seen –for not how he fought the war, but for how he ended the war– with respect and honor. Our nation shall never forget one of our greatest American heroes—Ulysses S. Grant.
Our Gang has a nice ring, the two words brought together the best of American boyhood and the timeless adventures of my childhood.The television and the movie series pitted scruffy, mischievous ” have not kids” against snobbish rich kids, sissy kids, and hardened class conscious adults to create the premise for the series. In my neighborhood of “have not” kids, I faced some of the same challenges to making fun. Follow along as the characters of Our Gang are revisited, you may recollect “Your Gang” of friends.
The “Our Gang” series was most notable for being one of the first productions in cinematic history in which blacks and whites were portrayed as equals. Our Gang made a greater impact on my life, than did some of the American heroes of the day; Jackie Robinson, Otto Graham, Jackie Gleason, Walt Disney, Willie Mays ,and Dwight Eisenhower. Because personally, the” Little Rascal” characters showed me how to get along with other kids, regardless of their size, shape, habits, language, or culture. I had plenty of characters in my neighborhood on which to practice their lessons and adventures..
My friends mirrored the characters in the children’s series; the “freckled faced kid,” the “fat kid,” the “neighborhood bully,” the “pretty brunette girl,” and the “mischievous younger ling. Sit back and relax, as you revisit the characters of Our Gang.
“We’re goin’ to the race, we’re gonna win first place, and you have an ugly face!”
Billie “Buckwheat” Thomas’ (1931-1980) his character evolved into a boy after Stymie left the series in 1935. Buckwheat had a speech impediment as a child, which added to the natural, real appeal to the series. Buckwheat and Stymie were starring in Hollywood roles at the height of “Jim Crow.” Hal Roach loved to show children at play, the misadventures of a bunch of little kids charmed movie audiences and helped Americans to see how the kids treated one other as equals on and off the screen.
Alfalfa: “I’m usually a lover, not a fighter, but in your case, I’m willing to make an exception! “ [punches Butch and he falls in the mud}
Carl “Alfalfa” Switzer (1927-1959), his character was often called upon to sing off-key renditions of popular songs, most often those of Bing Crosby. Alfalfa sported a cowlick, his popularity surpassed George “Spanky” McFarland by the end of 1937. He was dubbed “Alfalfa” at his first audition most likely by Hal Roach. In his role, he was the enterprising “idea man” he introduced the story line to the audience.
Spanky looked up at the Master of Ceremonies and replied, “Don’t rush me big boy.”
George “Spanky” McFarland (1928-1993), he was discovered at the age of three, in 1931, he became a key member of the Our Gang children’s series and a Hollywood star. He retired from filming Our Gang short films in 1942, Spanky was the chubby short-pants schemer and catalyst behind much of the hanky-panky in the “Our Gang” adventures.
Darla to Alfalfa: ” Have you been eating onions?”
Darla Hood (1931-1979), was best known as the leading lady in the Our Gang series from 1935-1941. She made her debut in Our Gang Follies of 1936. In her most memorable performance , she sang “I’m in the Mood for Love,”in The Pinch Singer. Hood’s final appearance was in 1941’s Wedding Worries.
Eugene “Porky” Lee (1933-2005), Hal Roach noticed how much the eighteen-month old toddler looked like Our Gang star Spanky McFarland, he hired him and gave him his nickname of “Porky.” At six years old, Porky grew several inches in height. Hal Roach observed that he was the same height as Spanky, then ten years old. Because of his size, Porky was replaced with one Mickey Gubitosi, better known by the stage name as Robert Blake.
Froggy: [after Dr. Malcolm Scott hears Froggy’s voice, he walks to him, to investigate Froggy’s larnyx] Dr. Malcolm Scott: Son, do you always sound like that? Froggy: No sir, only when I talk.
William “Froggy” Laughlin (1932-1948), he rose to fame at the age of eight when he debut with The New Pupil (1940). He was known for his strange, guttural voice, which sounded like a frog’s croak
Allen Clayton “Farina” Hoskins (1920-1980), was most famous for portraying the character of Farina in (105) Our Gang short films from 1921-1931. He was discovered while attending the “Little Red School House” on the set of the Hal Roach Studio. Hoskins became the first black child star, and was paid $350 a week, more than any other cast member at the time. He outgrew the series in 1931. He was replaced by Matthew “Stymie” Beard.
Miss Crabtree: (suspicious) Jackie Cooper, who was the Hunchback of Notre Dame? Jackie Cooper: Lon Chaney!
John Cooper Jr. (1922-2011), he joined Our Gang in the short Boxing Gloves in 1929. His most notable Our Gang short films explored his crush on Miss Crabtree, the schoolteacher. In 1931 he starred in Skippy for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor at the age on nine years old. Cooper went on to become one of the greatest stars in Hollywood.
“You’re darn right, it’s Butch! Now, what do you have to say before I tear you apart!” – Butch in Fishy Tales
Thomas Ross “Butch” Bond (1926-2005), Tommy was hired to work in Our Gang in 1931. He filled the role of the Our Gang bully, the Butch character regularly competed with meek Alfalfa for the affection of his sweetheart, Darla.
Petey was well known for having a circled eye that was added on by Hollywood make-up artist Max Factor
Stymie: ” I… Stymie… Member in good standing of the He-Man Woman Haters Club… Do solemnly swear to be a he-man and hate women and not play with them or talk to them unless I have to. And especially: never fall in love, and if I do may I die slowly and painfully and suffer for hours – or until I scream bloody murder”
Stymie” Beard (1925-1981), with his trademark bowler hat and bald head, Stymie was as popular as Spanky, Alfalfa, and Darla. One of his memorable lines was: “I don’t know brother, but we’re on our way.” Beard’s paycheck was used to support his Los Angeles family, including thirteen brothers and sisters. Buckwheat replaced Stymie in 1935.
She played, schoolteacher, Miss Crabtree. She replaced Miss McGuillicuddy.
June Marlowe (1903-1984), as Miss. Crabtree was discovered one day in Los Angeles in a department store, Hal Roach hired her to be the schoolteacher in the Our Gang series. She wore a blonde wig to complement leading star, Jackie Cooper. Marlowe and Cooper were paired in three Our Gang films, Teacher’s Pet, School’s Out, and Love Business. Jackie had a crush on her and became jealous when any of the other characters sought out her affection.
An “OUR GANG” insight into Life:
My “Our Gang” years in Cleveland, Ohio, provided some slapstick humor that created a childhood filled with unforgettable characters and many hours of laughter. All was not so funny at times. The Little Rascals motivated and inspired some crazy, foolish behavior from my gang; such behavior worried the adults with visible results. Their worried minds resulted in foreheads covered with beads of perspiration and noticeable streaks of gray hair covering their heads. In short, our fun was their worry.
Looking back to my early years as a follower of the Our Gang series, I came to some understandings about the neighborhood in which I lived. First, that prejudice was a real thing, but that I had a choice about being bias, especially after seeing children of the series sharing, cooperating, and collaborating freely to have fun. Also; that children (self) are not born with a prejudicial bone in their body, they are taught such things by adults. Futhermore, that the undiscovered idea that cultural differences could be bridged was a discovery learned by watching”The Little Rascals.” It changed my early life choices and showed me the endless possibilities for childhood frendships.
Hal Roach with his natural approach to directing allowed the child actors to be themselves, he was the inspiration in my childhood who illustrated and guided my inner child toward the value of being– my authentic self. In effect, the Our Gang series served as a form of on-going parenting that healed and spiritually fed my inner child in a very wholesome and loving way.
If you were one of those kids who made the “Little Rascals” a part of your day, leave your comments to share with “Our Gang.”
Any further words regarding the adult years of these matinee idols will remain silent for now.
Brotherton Cabin, Chickamauga, Site of Longstreet’s Breakthough, September 20, 1864
A Battlefield Illusion: A Soldiers Hell
While I was at the front, most every day, I would recollect about the good old days on the farm; everything that was beautiful, peaceful, and familiar; the rolling green acres, the fresh smell of a garden, the sounds of the barnyard, and the joy of sitting down to a home cooked meal. Such thoughts brought some comfort to a mind that was fatigued and tired of war. After I was wounded, I dreamt of my childhood running over the hills and dales chasing butterflies and fireflies, hoping to catch one, and making a wish. I laid for hours on end trying to fall asleep with a panged gut feeling of being homesick. I wrote often in my diary to remember the war and my days as a soldier.
I always volunteered for dangerous duty, because I was so scared, and I didn’t want anyone to guess that I was afraid. On a night when I volunteered for sentry duty, there was a foggy mist that covered the evening ground that made it impossible to see. Suddenly out of the mist, a Johnny Reb came a crawlin’ towards me. As he got closer to me, his face drifted out from behind the fog, he was a few feet away when I saw him clearly. I shortened my bayonet and let him have the point just under his ear. He stared at me idiotically, like he had sat on a tack. His eyes dimmed and went out. It was my first kill. My heart thumped, as I turned to return to camp, then out of the darkness jumped another rebel, I had to kill him in the same way. It felt like I murdered the same man twice, it was a queer moment. I was lost for words. Did the killing of war mean the murdering of the same man over and over again? I leaned against a tree far from the sounds of battle, alone with my thoughts. Then it dawned on me, that in the end those men being killed by my bayonet turned out to be me.
From that day forward, each face of the slain soldiers, kept coming back into my dreams. It was to my horror, that their faces flashed into my face, time after time. It a was nightmare from hell.
On the morning after such a dream, with a clear head, I realized that the joke of war was on me. What if I dropped my weapon, and the rebels did the same, we could walk together and shake hands. In my moment of insanity, I foolishly dropped my gun and walked toward the rebel lines, when suddenly an enemy bullet took me to the ground with a wound to the head. I was groggy for a short bit, then I regained my vision and consciousness. I realized, that I had been wounded, it was in an instant, when I turned into a raging bull, wanting to kill again. The men around me, felt my anger and they charged alongside of me toward the rebel line. We took no prisoners. The code of war hates a coward, but the reason(s) for war break many codes.
All I want is to return to my “home sweet home.”
The account and descriptions are fictitious, although such an experience could have taken place during the Civil War.
I wrote this piece in honor of those who have served our nation.
Nostalgia is a remembrance of our treasured times , lost, silenced stories of neighbors and neighborhoods, extinct forms of technology, vanished jobs and the human emotions that we attached to those membranes are at the center of my nostalgia. Nostalgia is a valid, honorable, ancient human emotion that arises from a lost connection from our past. What stands out for me was the warmth of memories of my family, friends, and neighborhood. I was most impressed by the geographical and emotional closeness that gave me a seamless connection to my community. I lived in a neighborhood where walkability was an unheard of word. I walked, rode a bike, or grabbed a ride on the streetcar or bus to get to most anyplace of interest.
My nostalgia is not for something lost, or for something I never had to begin with, or that never existed at all. My nostalgia is rooted in a keepsake of memories that helped to create, mold, and guide my personal growth through adolescence. As I studied photographs from the past, in that moment, I am connected; it is like I placed a phone call directly into the past and heard an answering voice.
“Hello, Mrs. Moore, thank you for coming to open house. Your son, Reynolds, has a way about him. When he decides to do something, he becomes determined and gets it done,” voiced Mr. David Long, sixth grade teacher at Cleveland’s Case School. Ironically, I became a teacher, and sixteen years later during a training session, I was able to rekindle my relationship with my former teacher.
Revisiting the past through photographs brings a feeling that overcomes at times, especially if I can see a momentary restoration of beauty around a person, place, or thing. As you view these vintage photos from the 1950’s, it is my hope that as you make your phone call into the past, that you hear an answering voice.
What are the top ten tips to be an effective teacher? The purpose of the list to create a state of mindfulness in the teacher. As these ideas become more mindful, the teacher will be sharing the same mindfulness with students. Wellness begins with the teacher, then learning to control their attention can come, if you can quiet yourself. Once students feel that they can calm themselves through breathing it’s like a wow moment. The ultimate goal is self awareness and self regulation. The list below is far from being all inclusive, just a few tips to stimulate and calm your mind.